Mother Board

A motherboard is the central or primary circuit board making up a complex electronic system, such as a modern computer. It is also known as a mainboard, baseboard, system board, planar board or, on Apple computers, a logic board, and is sometimes abbreviated as mobo.

Most motherboards produced today are designed for so-called IBM-compatible computers, which held over 96% of the global personal computer market in 2005.Motherboards for IBM-compatible computers are specifically covered in the PC motherboard article.

A motherboard, like a backplane, provides the electrical connections by which the other components of the system communicate, but unlike a backplane also contains the central processing unit and other subsystems such as real time clock, and some peripheral interfaces.

A typical desktop computer is built with the microprocessor, main memory, and other essential components on the motherboard. Other components such as external storage, controllers for video display and sound, and peripheral devices are typically attached to the motherboard via edge connectors and cables, although in modern computers it is increasingly common to integrate these "peripherals" into the motherboard.

Hard Disk

A hard disk drive (HDD), commonly referred to as a hard drive, hard disk or fixed disk drive, is a non-volatile storage device which stores digitally encoded data on rapidly rotating platters with magnetic surfaces. Strictly speaking, "drive" refers to a device distinct from its medium, such as a tape drive and its tape, or a floppy disk drive and its floppy disk. Early HDDs had removable media; however, an HDD today is typically a sealed unit (except for a filtered vent hole to equalize air pressure) with fixed media.

A HDD is a rigid-disk drive, although it is probably never referred to as such. By way of comparison, a so-called "floppy" drive (more formally, a diskette drive) has a disc that is flexible. Originally, the term "hard" was temporary slang, substituting "hard" for "rigid", before these drives had an established and universally-agreed-upon name. Some time ago, IBM's internal company term for an HDD was "file".

HDDs (introduced in 1956 as data storage for an IBM accounting computer) were originally developed for use with computers.

In the 21st century, applications for HDDs have expanded beyond computers to include digital video recorders, digital audio players, personal digital assistants, digital cameras and video game consoles. In 2005 the first mobile phones to include HDDs were introduced by Samsung and Nokia. The need for large-scale, reliable storage, independent of a particular device, led to the introduction of configurations such as RAID arrays, network attached storage (NAS) systems and storage area network (SAN) systems that provide efficient and reliable access to large volumes of data.

Removable media devices

CD - the most common type of removable media, inexpensive but has a short life-span.

CD-ROM Drive - a device used for reading data from a CD.
CD Writer - a device used for both reading and writing data to and from a CD.

DVD - a popular type of removable media that is the same dimensions as a CD but stores up to 6 times as much information. It is the most common way of transferring digital video.

DVD-ROM Drive - a device used for reading data from a DVD.
DVD Writer - a device used for both reading and writing data to and from a DVD.
DVD-RAM Drive - a device used for rapid writing and reading of data from a special type of DVD.

Blu-ray - a high-density optical disc format for the storage of digital information, including high-definition video.

BD-ROM Drive - a device used for reading data from a Blu-ray disc.
BD Writer - a device used for both reading and writing data to and from a Blu-ray disc.

HD DVD - a high-density optical disc format and successor to the standard DVD. It was a discontinued competitor to the Blu-ray format.
Floppy disk - an outdated storage device consisting of a thin disk of a flexible magnetic storage medium.
Zip drive - an outdated medium-capacity removable disk storage system, first introduced by Iomega in 1994.
USB flash drive - a flash memory data storage device integrated with a USB interface, typically small, lightweight, removable and rewritable.
Tape drive - a device that reads and writes data on a magnetic tape, usually used for long term storage.

RAM Random Access memory

Random access memory (usually known by its acronym, RAM) is a type of computer data storage. Today it takes the form of integrated circuits that allow the stored data to be accessed in any order, i.e. at random. The word random thus refers to the fact that any piece of data can be returned in a constant time, regardless of its physical location and whether or not it is related to the previous piece of data.

This contrasts with storage mechanisms such as tapes, magnetic discs and optical discs, which rely on the physical movement of the recording medium or a reading head. In these devices, the movement takes longer than the data transfer, and the retrieval time varies depending on the physical location of the next item.

The word RAM is mostly associated with volatile types of memory (such as DRAM memory modules), where the information is lost after the power is switched off. However, many other types of memory are RAM as well (i.e. Random Access Memory), including most types of ROM and a kind of flash memory called NOR-Flash.

Input Devices

An Input device is any piece of computer hardware equipment used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system (such as a computer). Input and output devices make up the hardware interface between a computer and the user or external world.

Typical examples of input devices include keyboards and mice. However, there are others which provide many more degrees of freedom. In general, any sensor which monitors, scans for and accepts information from the external world can be considered an input device, whether or not the information is under the direct control of a user.

Output Devices

An output device is any piece of computer hardware equipment used to communicate the results of data processing carried out by an information processing system (such as a computer) to the outside world.

In computing, input/output, or I/O, refers to the communication between an information processing system (such as a computer), and the outside world. Inputs are the signals or data sent to the system, and outputs are the signals or data sent by the system to the outside.

The most common input devices used by the computer are the keyboard and mouse. The keyboard allows the entry of textual information while the mouse allows the selection of a point on the screen by moving a screen cursor to the point and pressing a mouse button. The most common outputs are monitors and speakers.

Visual display unit
A visual display unit (also called VDU, monitor, or screen) offers a two-dimensional visual presentation of information.
A speaker can be used for various sounds meant to alert the user, as well as music and spoken text.
Printers produce a permanent hard copy of the information on paper